Council for Ligurian Linguistic Heritage

Ligurian Council

Summary of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

Consonants

SymbolExamples
b bira [ˈbiːra]
ancioa [aŋˈtʃuːa]
k cösa [ˈkɔːsa]
d donde [ˈduŋde]
f forçiña [furˈsiŋˑa]
ɡ gambao [ˈɡaŋbɔw]
giano [ˈdʒaːnu]
ɲ ògni [ˈɔɲˑi]
l leugo [ˈløːɡu]
m mego [ˈmeːɡu]
n neutte [ˈnøtˑe]
ŋ settemaña [ˌseteˈmaŋˑa]
banco [ˈbaŋku]
campo [ˈkaŋpu]
p primmo [ˈprimˑu]
r crava [ˈkraːva]
s seia [ˈsejˑa]
çexe [ˈseːʒe]
ʃ scemmo [ˈʃemˑu]
t artâ [arˈtaː]
v veo [ˈpɔːvɔw]
ʒ caxo [ˈkaːʒu]
z reusa [ˈrøːza]

Vowels

SymbolExamples
a gianco [ˈdʒaŋku]
cà [ˈka]
giano [ˈdʒaːnu]
guägno [ˈɡwaːɲu]
sätâ [saːˈtaː]
e sei [ˈsej]
perché [pɛrˈke]
poela [ˈpweːla]
sëi [ˈseːi]
giardinê [dʒardiˈneː]
ɛ æña [ˈɛŋˑa]
taggiæn [taˈdʒɛŋ]
orchesta [ɔrˈkɛsta]
ɛː ægua [ˈɛːgwa]
moæ [ˈmwɛː]
persa [ˈpɛːrsa]
i avanti [aˈvaŋti]
idea [iˈdeːa]
dio [ˈdiːu]
poïscio [ˈpwiːʃu]
vegnî [veˈɲiː]
ø neutte [ˈnøtˑe]
øː meu [ˈmøː]
ɔ dònna [ˈdɔnˑa]
ascidiou [aʃiˈdjɔw]
succao [ˈsykˑɔw]
ɔː öxello [ɔːˈʒelˑu]
pòrto [ˈpɔːrtu]
u òmmo [ˈɔmˑu]
cô [ˈkuː]
coa [ˈkuːa]
y tutti [ˈtytˑi]
cû [ˈkyː]
curto [ˈkyːrtu]

Semivowels

SymbolExamples
j avei [aˈvej]
äia [ˈaːja]
w coæ [ˈkwɛː]
voentæ [vweŋˈtɛː]
ɥ arsuou [arˈsɥɔw]

Suprasegmental symbols

SymbolFunctionExamples
ˈ◌ primary stress segretto [seˈɡretˑu]
ˌ◌ secondary stress Portofin [ˌpɔrtuˈfiŋ]
◌ː long (vowels) Dënâ [deːˈnaː]
◌ˑ half-long (consonants) aggio [ˈadʒˑu]

Frequently asked questions

How is [ʃtʃ] pronounced?

The sound [ʃtʃ], which can be found in Genoese words containing the sequence ⟨scc⟩, is pronounced like ⟨sc⟩ in the Italian word ‘scelta’ followed by ⟨c⟩ of the italian word ‘ciao’. Two examples of words with this sequence are scceuppo [ˈʃtʃøpˑu] e mescciua [meʃˈtʃyːa].

What's the difference between [i] and [j]?

What's the difference between [u] and [w]?

What's the difference between [y] and [ɥ]?

The sounds [i], [u] e [y] are vowels. On the other hand, the sounds [j], [w] e [ɥ] are semivowels, with sounds halfway between a vowel and a consonant. You can hear the difference between hiatus (long vowel + short vowel) and diphthongs (semivowel + long vowel) in the following words:

  • gia [ˈdʒiːa] ‘turns’ (indicative present, third person singular) e giâ [ˈdʒjaː] ‘to turn’;
  • coa [ˈkuːa] ‘queue’ e coâ [ˈkwaː] ‘to drip’;
  • nua [ˈnyːa] ‘naked’ (feminine singular) e nuâ [ˈnɥaː] ‘to swim’.